The use of microorganisms inside wastewater treatment plants (bio-enrichment) constitutes an attractive solution for the achievement of removal efficiencies higher than the normally achievable ones inside the organic sector. In facts, microorganisms transform organic substances dissolved or dispersed in the effluent. Then, they use them for their nutritional needs, demolishing and transforming them in simple compounds.
Akron S.r.l. has a valid experience in the research and production of various specific enzymatic bacterial preparations for all the wastewater treatment branches. Every preparation is characterized by a specific population of microorganisms obtained through fermentation, thus ensuring a high efficiency of purification.
Bacteria increase the yield of the water purifier, by destroying the polluting molecules and fighting the presence of parasitic bacteria species.
The Bacillus genus – belonging to the Bacillaceae family – comprises a broadly diversified taxonomic group of gram-positive (or gram-variable) spore-forming facultative aerobic or anaerobic bacteria that use a wide range of carbon sources for the production of heterotrophic (or rarely autotrophic) bacteria production. The Bacillus genus is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous and versatile. This characteristic reflects on their wide physiological variety. Such heterogeneity comprises a broad range of physiological specializations associated to the survival and colonization of various ecological niches. However, the main characteristics that define this genus are the Gram-positive cell wall and the ability to form endospores under unfavorable and stressful conditions (Ash et al., 1991). Their spores show a typical resistance both to chemical agents, such as disinfectants, and (thermal and non-thermal) physical treatments used in the food industry. The surviving spores can germinate and grow very quickly.
They produce protease, esterase, and other kinds of exoenzymes of the exponential phase of growth. Exoenzymes are generally able to digest insoluble nutritive materials, such as cellulose, proteins and starch. The digested products are transported to the cell where they are used as growth nutrients (Gibb e Strohl, 1987 e Oh, et al., 2000). Proteases are one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes and represent roughly 60% of total sold enzymes.
The Bacillaceae play a key role in the nitrogen cycle. They are responsible for nitrogen denitrification and fixation processes. The denitrification is an anerobic process in which the nitrogen serves as electron acceptor during the oxidation of the organic material, which is converted into N2O, NO and N2. The Bacillaceae – able to fix nitrogen – manage to reduce the atmosphere nitrogen and ammonia, thanks to specific enzymes: the nitrogenase.
Another important role which is played by this family of bacteria is their involvement in the cycle of phosphate. Phosphorus is an essential mineral for plant growth; however, very often, in the soil, it is complexed to different cations, such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ and Al3+. This makes the phosphorus less accessible to plants. Some bacteria and fungi are able to produce different phosphatases and carry out phosphate solubilizing activities. In so doing, they release the phosphate from insoluble polyphosphate complexes, with a consequent benefit for the plant growth.
Akron S.r.l. has chosen B. licheniformis, B. coagulans and B. subtilis strains for their features and natural predisposition to produce specific enzymes, also essential for the destruction of polluting molecules in wastewater and sludges.
The use of Bacillus mixtures in wastewater treatment plants leads to:
- Improvement of bacterial flora and of the sludge flocks;
- A very quick ignition of the plant;
- Acceleration of the pollution load counteracting procedures;
- Decrease in the output polluting load;
- BOD and COD removal;
- Reduction in floating sludge due to filamentous microorganisms;
- Reduction in oxygen consumption;
- Residual color removal.